Children show both hyperactive and impulsive behavior, but for the most part, they are able to pay attention. Formerly called attention deficit disorder ADD. These children are not overly active.
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Abstract Background Language development is one of the most significant processes of early childhood development. Children with delayed speech development are more at risk of acquiring other cognitive, social-emotional, and school-related problems.
Music therapy appears to facilitate speech development in children, even within a short period of time. The aim of this pilot study is to explore the effects of music therapy in children with delayed speech development. Methods A total of 18 children aged 3. Individual music therapy was provided on an outpatient basis.
An ABAB reversal design with alternations between music therapy and no treatment with an interval of approximately eight weeks between the blocks was chosen. Before and after each study period, a speech development test, a non-verbal intelligence test for children, and music therapy assessment scales were used to evaluate the speech development of the children.
Results Compared to the baseline, we found a positive development in the study group after receiving music therapy. Both phonological capacity and the children's understanding of speech increased under treatment, as well as their cognitive structures, The treatment of children in areas patterns, and level of intelligence.
Throughout the study period, developmental age converged with their biological age. Ratings according to the Nordoff-Robbins scales showed clinically significant changes in the children, namely in the areas of client-therapist relationship and communication.
Conclusions This study suggests that music therapy may have a measurable effect on the speech development of children through the treatment's interactions with fundamental aspects of speech development, including the ability to form and maintain relationships and prosodic abilities.
Thus, music therapy may provide a basic and supportive therapy for children with delayed speech development. Further studies should be conducted to investigate the mechanisms of these interactions in greater depth. Trial registration The trial is registered in the German clinical trials register; Trial-No.: By using music as a specific medium of communication and expression and adapting it to the individual resources and abilities of the patient, music therapy can be beneficial in activating and supporting mental and psycho-physical recovery.
Several systematic reviews have shown the effects of music therapy in different clinical and therapeutic settings, such as for the treatment of psychiatric diseases like schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illnesses [ 1 ], psychosis [ 2 ], neurological diseases like multiple sclerosis [ 3 ], dementia [ 4 ], or for the treatment of anxiety and pain [ 5 ].
In addition to these therapeutic fields, music therapy can also be applied in the treatment of developmentally delayed children.
Already inAldridge et al.
In another study, Duffy and Fuller found that an 8-week music therapy intervention in social skills development in moderately disabled children resulted in an increment in terms of turn-taking, imitation, and vocalization [ 7 ]. Perry found direct relationships between the level of communication skills and elements of musical interaction in children with severe and multiple disabilities [ 8 ].
Finally, Kim et al. Developmental delay often accompanies delayed speech development. Speech development is an important predictor for later problems, such issues with reading and spelling, among other learning difficulties.
According to Sallat [ 11 ], different authors describe children with delayed speech development as being highly at risk of other cognitive, social-emotional, and school-related problems. According to a study in Bavaria, Although there are considerable epidemiological variations due to the definition of developmental speech delay, its prevention is a challenging social issue.
In this respect, it is of vital importance to apply therapies that are able to support the salutogenetic capacities of the child with the aim of enhancing his or her speech development as early as possible. According to findings of Aldridge [ 6 ] and Schumacher [ 16 ], music therapy is an approach that may facilitate significant advances in speech development and communication skills, particularly in children with autism.
Additionally, Lathan-Radocy [ 17 ] described different ways and methods of working with speech and language impaired children by engaging them in music therapy. Finally, several case studies found positive effects of music therapy on speech development in children [ 18 - 20 ].
Based on these findings, this study aims at examining the effectiveness of music therapy on a child's verbal reasoning abilities. Furthermore, we wanted to investigate whether experiencing musical structures, such as rhythm or strophic forms, and improvising with a music therapist could stimulate a child's ability to understand sentences, as well as encourage his or her interest in communicating with others.
Methods Study design This observational pilot study was conducted in the Department of Music Therapy at Herdecke Community Hospital between and We chose an ABAB reversal design with alternations between music therapy and no treatment with an interval of approximately eight weeks between the blocks.
Before and after the music therapy blocks, a speech therapist and a psychologist, who were both blinded to the conditions and timing, tested the children using validated speech and nonverbal developmental tests. Participants and inclusion criteria All children were recruited via announcements in integrative and regular nursery schools.
Parents contacted the music therapy department at the hospital by phone and after the first selection, 39 children aged 3. Participants had to pass a medical examination and take a speech test to check whether they had a specific developmental speech disorder ICDCodes: They also had to score below 50 out of points in the phonological short-term memory test for non-words German: As a result, a total of 18 children 6 girls; mean age: None of the participants were physically disabled and all were able to move and act independently.Assistive Technology enables children to function more independently in areas where they would otherwise have difficulty, need assistance, or be unable to participate.
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