Popular This opens a pop-up window to share the URL for this database Academic Search Premier contains full text and peer-reviewed publications. It also contains indexing and abstracts for news sources and refereed journals in nearly every area of academic study including:
He accused one political opponent, Catilineof murdering one wife to make room for another. He attacked Mark Antony in speeches known as the Philippicaeeventually prompting Antony to chop off his head and right hand and display them at the Roman Forum.
This manual for warriors describes the necessity for understanding an opponent's weaknesses, for using spies, and for striking in moments of weakness. In 18th century England, opposition research took the form of scandalmongering pamphlet wars between the Whig and Tory parties.
The first appearance of the phrase "opposition research" in the New York Times occurred on December 17,in an article that describes the infiltration of the Edmund Muskie presidential campaign by a female Republican volunteer: Information gathering can be classified into three main categories: Increasingly, data-mining of electronic records is used.
Information is then stored for future use, and disseminated in a variety of ways. Another technique is to infiltrate the opposition's operations and position a paid informant there.
In the presidential election, a dossier of opposition research against Republican Vice-Presidential nominee Sarah Palin was posted in its entirety on a political blog site, Politico.
The file was compiled by the staff of her opponent in the Alaska gubernatorial race, Tony Knowles. Many prime time television and radio news commentaries rely on this supply of party-generated material because it is free, and therefore more cost-effective than paying investigative reporters.
Often the information is video footage gathered in campaign-funded "tracker programs" wherein videographers use candidates' itineraries to track them and record as many remarks as possible, since anything they say can and will be used against them, as was the case in former Senator George Allen's "macaca moment.
The name was considered to be an ethnic slur, and Allen's campaign could not overcome the damage when the incident was broadcast widely in mainstream media and on the internet.
Data becomes "richer" about political actors, policy options, and the diversity of actors and opinion in the public sphere, but citizenship is "thinner" by virtue of "the ease in which people can become politically expressive without being substantively engaged.
Front-runner Democrat Gil Cedillo sent out mailers targeting year-old Emanuel Pleitez, grouping Pleitez's Facebook photos to suggest that he parties to excess with alcohol, and fraternizes with gangs. The text of the mailer suggested Pleitez, posing with a Latino stage actress and using a Latino voter registration drive hand sign, was "flashing gang signs".
Gov, Mark Taylorrevealed Cox's campaign had added information from an opposition research dossier to a Wikipedia page on Taylor. Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales confirmed that the material had come from an IP address affiliated with the Cox campaign.
Citing an Associated Press analysis, CNN reported that Wikipedia being used as a "popular tool" for opposition researchers became so widespread a problem that Wikipedia altered its submission guidelines and set up alerts so that its operators know when Capitol Hill staffers alter Wikipedia content.
Grassroots oppo-research[ edit ] Opposition research is a necessary component of "grassroots" activist groups. Research on corporate or political opponents may enable activist groups to target neighborhoods from which to increase their numbers, to refine their focus or "target," to pinpoint the target's vulnerabilities, to reveal hidden sources of funding or little-known connections, to investigate scare tactics, and to augment a legislative initiative.
Other organizations such as the Sunlight Foundation encouraged citizen examination of such public domain records as Mitt Romney's financial disclosure statements and Bill Clinton's income statements.
One bonus financial filing tip: The press may poke a little fun at your candidate's expense; your donors may feel their donation in being misspent and may never give again.
In recent years the task of opposition research has been privatized in many areas. Full-time companies with permanent staff specializing in media productions or "grassroots" operations have replaced volunteers and campaign officials.
Political media consultants may also opt for astroturfing techniques, which simulate wide popular appeal for a candidate's platform. In presidential elections[ edit ] Opponents of Andrew Jackson in the and presidential elections unearthed his marriage records to imply that he was an adulterer for marrying Rachel Robards before she was legally divorced from her first husband.
Jackson had married her in on the strength of a statement from her husband that he had divorced her; Jackson had two wedding ceremonies, the not-recognizable one of and the legally corrective one of From breaking news and entertainment to sports and politics, get the full story with all the live commentary.
BibMe Free Bibliography & Citation Maker - MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard. Conclusion Ann Taylor has gained popularity due to the rising demand classic clothes and suits by women. Following the analysis of the company’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, company should produce fashionable products and expand globally%(24).
In the politics of the United States, opposition research (also called oppo research) is the practice of collecting information on a political opponent or other adversary that can be used to discredit or otherwise weaken pfmlures.com information can include biographical, legal, criminal, medical, educational, or financial history or activities, as well as prior media coverage, or the voting record.
AN Ann Taylor was founded by Robert Liebeskind, son of a high-class dressmaker, and dates back to At the time Ann Taylor was a bestselling dress design .
Reviewed scientific papers on reverse logistics and closed loop supply chain. • Content analysis is employed to ensure the scientific rigor of this review.